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A critical review on organophosphate esters in drinking water: Analysis, occurrence, sources, and human health risk assessment

环境化学 有机磷 化学 萃取(化学) 环境科学 杀虫剂 色谱法 农学 生物
作者
Jianan Huang,Jianhua Li,Wenjing Meng,Guanyong Su
出处
期刊:Science of The Total Environment [Elsevier]
卷期号:913: 169663-169663
标识
DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.169663
摘要

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Copious studies assessed OPEs in various environmental media. However, there is limited summative information about OPEs in drinking water. This review provides comprehensive data for the analytical methods, occurrence, sources, and risk assessment of OPEs in drinking water. In general, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction are the most common methods in the extraction of OPEs from drinking water, while gas chromatography and liquid chromatography are the most commonly used instrumental methods for detecting OPEs in drinking water. On the basis of these techniques, a variety of methods on OPEs pretreatment and determination have been developed to know the pollution situation of OPEs. Studies on the occurrence of OPEs in drinking water show that the total concentration of OPEs vary seasonally and regionally, with tris(1-chloro-2-isopropyl) phosphate and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate dominant among different kinds of drinking water. Source identification studies show that there are three main sources of OPEs in drinking water: 1) source water contamination; 2) residual in drinking water treatment process; 3) leakage from device or pipeline. Besides, risk assessments indicate that individual and total OPEs pose no or negligible health risk to human, but this result may be significantly underestimated. Finally, the current knowledge gaps on the research of OPEs in drinking water are discussed and some suggestions are provided for future environmental research.
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